Some facts about Renal Stones
Kidney stone decease
A disease, followed by formation of stones in urinary system from dissolved urinary minerals. Reasons can be different - wrong eating habits, wrong medicines, genetic abnormalities, etc. Not a new disease; Stone has been found in Egyptian mummy at E1 Amrah, 4800 BC-1st eviedence of Urinary Stones.
12th century BC; Sushruta performed perineal lithotomy.
1879 ; Heinecke performed Pyelolithotomy
1976 ; Fernstrom & Johansson described planned endoscopic surgery for the large kidney stone – PCNL.
1980 ; Chausy – sound wave to break stones ESWL or Lithotripsy.
1 in 10 persons develop Kidney stones in life time.
5 – 10 % population is affected, 50 % of them have recurrence in next 5 t0 10 yrs.
7-10 of every 1000 hospital admission.
Types :
To date over 200 components have been found in calculi; however, the most common constituents of kidney stones are:
Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (Whewellite); CaC2O4 * H2O
Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate (Weddellite); CaC2O4 * 2H2O
Magnesium Ammonium Phosphate Hexahydrate (Struvite); MgNH4PO4 * 2H2O
Calcium Phosphate, Carbonate Form (Carbonate Apatite); Ca10(PO4 * CO3OH)6(OH)2
Calcium Phosphate, Hydroxyl Form (Hydroxyl Apatite); Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2
Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Dihydrate (Brushite); CaHPO4 * 2H2O
Uric Acid; C5H4N4O3
Cystine; (SCH2CH(NH2)*COOH)2
Sodium Acid Urate; NaH * C5H2O3N4 * H2O
Tricalcium Phosphate (Whitlockite); Ca3(PO4)2
Ammonium Acid Urate; NH4H * C5H2O3N4 * H2O
Magnesium Hydrogen Phosphate Trihydrate (Newberyite); MgHPO4 * 3H2O